Department of Engineering Sciences

New PhD theses

Linnea Sjökvist,  "Wave Loads and Peak Forces on Moored Wave Energy Devices in Tsunamis and Extreme Waves", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1551

Abstract:

Surface gravity waves carry enormous amounts of energy over our oceans, and if their energy could be harvested to generate electricity, it could make a significant contribution to the worlds power demand. But the survivability of wave energy devices in harsh operating conditions has proven challenging, and for wave energy to be a possibility, peak forces during storms and extreme waves must be studied and the devices behaviour understood. Although the wave power industry has benefited from research and development in traditional offshore industries, there are important differences. Traditional offshore structures are designed to minimize power absorption and to have small motion response, while wave power devices are designed to maximize power absorption and to have a high motion response. This increase the difficulty of the already challenging survivability issue. Further, nonlinear effects such as turbulence and overtopping can not be neglected in harsh operating conditions. In contrast to traditional offshore structures, it is also important to correctly account for the power take off system in a wave energy converter (WEC), as it is strongly coupled to the devices behaviour.[...] 

José Pérez-Loya, "Analysis and control of magnetic forces in synchronous machines", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1542

Abstract:

In a synchronous machine, radial, tangential, and axial forces are generated. In this thesis, three different technologies to control them are proposed. The first one, involves the utilization of the radial forces that arise between the rotor and the stator. This is achieved by segmenting the rotor field winding into groups of poles and controlling their corresponding magnetization individually. This technology is particularly useful to achieve magnetic balance and to create controllable radial forces. The second technology, involves the control of the rotor field in order to influence the tangential forces that produce torque. This is achieved by inverting the rotor field winding polarity with respect to the stator field. With this technique, breaking and accelerating torques can be created. It is particularly useful to start a synchronous machine. Finally, the application of axial forces with a magnetic thrust bearing is discussed. The main benefits of this technology are higher efficiency and increased reliability.[...] 

Mohd Muzafar Ismail,  "Features and origin of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning flashes",Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1535

Abstract:

Negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes transport negative charge from cloud to ground. Negative ground flashes typically involve various processes identified as preliminary breakdown, stepped leader, return stroke, dart leader, dart-stepped leader, subsequent return stroke, and cloud activity between strokes, such as regular pulse trains and chaotic pulse trains. These processes can be identified through their electromagnetic field signatures. The main focus of this thesis is to document the features and understand the origin of electromagnetic fields, especially the chaotic pulse trains, generated by lightning flashes.

Electric field measurements have been used to study lightning flashes in Sweden. The equipment was a parallel flat plate antenna with an analog filter buffer circuit, connected to a digital high speed oscilloscope. Four simultaneous measurements were made: wideband measurement of the E-field (the vertical component) and its time derivative dE/dt, and two narrowband measurements of the E-field, centred around 3 MHz and 30 MHz. Fourier and wavelet transforms were used in the analysis of the measured data.[...] 

LiGuo Wang, "Modelling and advanced control of fully coupled wave energy converters subject to constraints: the wave-to-wire approach", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1528

Abstract:

Ocean wave energy is a promising renewable source to contribute to supplying the world’s energy demand. The Division of Electricity at Uppsala University is developing a technology to capture energy from ocean waves with a wave energy converter (WEC) consisting of a linear permanent magnet generator and a point absorber. The linear generator is placed on sea bed and is driven directly by the floating absorber. Since March 2006, multiple wave energy converters have been deployed on the Swedish west coast outside the town of Lysekil. The technology is verified by long-term operation during at sea and satisfactory reliability of the electricity generation.

Magnus Hedlund, "Electrified Integrated Kinetic Energy Storage", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1504

Abstract:

The electric car is a technically efficient driveline, although it is demanding in terms of the primary energy source. Most trips are below 50 km and the mean power required for maintaining speed is quite low, but the system has to be able to both provide long range and high maximum power for acceleration. By separating power and energy handling in a hybrid driveline, the primary energy source, e.g. a battery can be optimised for specific energy (decreasing costs and material usage). Kinetic energy storage in the form of flywheels can handle the short, high power bursts of acceleration and decceleration with high efficiency.

This thesis focuses on the design and construction of flywheels in which an electric machine and a low-loss magnetic suspension are considered an integral part of the composite shell, in an effort to increase specific energy. A method of numerically optimising shrink-fitted composite shells was developed and implemented in software, based on a plane stress assumption, with a grid search optimiser. A composite shell was designed, analysed numerically and constructed, with an integrated permanent magnet synchronous machine. .[...] 

Nicole Carpman, "Resource characterization and variability studies for marine current power", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1499

Abstract:
In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites. Firstly, a tidal site has been investigated for its resource potential in a fjord in Norway. Measurements have been performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler to map the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow. Results show that currents are in the order of 2 m/s in the center of the channel. Furthermore, the flow is highly bi-directional between ebb and flood flows. The site thus has potential for in-stream energy conversion. Secondly, a river site serves as an experimental site for a marine current energy converter that has been designed at Uppsala University and deployed in Dalälven, Söderfors. The flow rate at the site is regulated by an upstream hydro power plant, making the site suitable for experiments on the performance of the vertical axis turbine in a natural environment. The turbine was run in steady discharge flows and measurements were performed to characterize the extent of the wake. Lastly, at an ocean current site, the effect that transiting ferries may have on submerged devices was investigated. Measurements were conducted with two sonar systems to obtain an underwater view of the wake caused by a propeller and a water jet thruster respectively. .[...] 

Weija Yang, "Hydropower plants and power systems: Dynamic processes and control for stable and efficient operation", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1494,

Abstract:

As the largest global renewable source, hydropower shoulders a large portion of the regulation duty in many power systems. New challenges are emerging from variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, the increasing scale and complexity of hydropower plants (HPPs) and power grid. Stable and efficient operation of HPPs and their interaction with power systems is of great importance.

Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and on-site measurement are adopted as main study methods in this thesis. Various numerical models of HPPs are established, with different degrees of complexity for different purposes. The majority of the analysis and results are based on eight HPPs in Sweden and China..[...] 

Jonas Nøland Kristiansen, "A new paradigm for large brushless hydrogenerators: Advantages beyond the static system", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1491

Abstract:

The grid code, FIKS, from the Norwegian transmission system operator (TSO), Statnett, states that synchronous generators > 25MVA, must have a static excitation system. However, an improved brushless excitation system is in operation on some commercial power plants (36MVA, 93.75rpm & 52MVA, 166.67rpm) with grid-assisting performance beyond the conventional static system. The convenional diode bridge is replaced with a remote-controlled thyristor bridge on the shaft. If wireless communication is not allowed, a control signal through brushes should be employed instead. The thesis explores the expected new era for large brushless hydrogenerators. The proposed brushless system have benefits of reduced regular maintenance due to elimination of brushes and reduced unscheduled maintenance due to redundancy; causing a redused cost-of-energy. A six-phase exciter design with a hybrid-mode thyristor bridge interface leads to improved fault-tolerance, better controllability, minimized torque pulsations and reduced armature currents of the exciter. Excitation boosting (EB) capability is included in the brushless system without additional components or circuitry, contrary to the static excitation system. The brushless excitation system is made insensitive to voltage dips in the interconnected grid, causing improved fault ride-through (FRT) capability and power system stabilizer (PSS) actions. 

Erik Möllerström, "Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW  H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1485

Abstract:

Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms. The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor. This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.[...] 

Linn Saarinen, "The Frequency of the Frequency: On Hydropower and Grid Frequency Control", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1460

Abstract:

Variations in the electricity consumption and production connected to the power system have to be balanced by active control. Hydropower is the most important balancing resource in the Nordic system, and will become even more important as the share of variable renewable energy sources increases. This thesis concerns balancing of active power, especially the real-time balancing called frequency control. The thesis starts in a description of the situation today, setting up models for the behaviour of hydropower units and the power system relevant to frequency control, and comparing the models with experiments on several hydropower units and on the response of the Nordic grid. It is found that backlash in the regulating mechanisms in hydropower units have a strong impact on the quality of the delivered frequency control. Then, an analysis of what can be done right now to improve frequency control and decrease its costs is made, discussing governor tuning, filters and strategies for allocation of frequency control reserves. The results show that grid frequency quality could be improved considerably by retuning of hydropower governors.[...] 

Antoine Baudoin, "Cooling Strategies for Wave Power Conversion Systems", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1454

Abstract:

The Division for Electricity of Uppsala University is developing a wave power concept. The energy of the ocean waves is harvested with wave energy converters, consisting of one buoy and one linear generator. The units are connected in a submerged substation. The mechanical design is kept as simple as possible to ensure reliability.

The submerged substation includes power electronics and different types of electrical power components. Due to the high cost of maintenance operations at sea, the reliability of electrical systems for offshore renewable energy is a major issue in the pursuit of making the electricity production economically viable. Therefore, proper thermal management is essential to avoid the components being damaged by excessive temperature increases.[...]